Step-3] Sequence Activities

Upon finalization of work package and their corresponding Activity list, it is necessary to sequence the activities so that we can arrange them on timeline scale. For that we need

(1)    Project Schedule Network Diagram using techniques like Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) sequence the activities. PDM represents activities on Nodes and link them to sequence graphically.

(2)    Dependency Determination
(3)    Leads and Lags

Let us study the above in detail. Precedence Diagraming Method (PDM) :  Activities are represented by nodes and graphically linked to show the Activity sequence. There are four kinds of graphical relationship

1. Finish to Start (Most common type of relationship):  For B to get Started, A has to get finished.

[Ex– 1] The Awards Ceremony (Successor) cannot start until the Race (Predecessor) is finished

[Ex-2] Building the Software Feature (Successor) cannot start unless Design of that feature is finished (Predessor)

2. Finish to Finish:

[Ex-1]  Writing a document (predecessor) is required to finish before editing the document (successor) can finish.

[Ex-2]  Rework (Bug Fix) resulting a bad work cannot Finish unless Testing corresponding to that feature cannot Finish.

3.  Start to Finish:

[Ex-1] In Shift, first security gurard shift (successor) cannot finish until the second security guard shift (predecessors) starts.

[Ex-2] In Agile Development, The User Feature (successor) cannot finish until the Team involving the Product Owner's  Acceptance  gets Finished.

4. Start to Start: (Rarely Used in Real time Projects)

[Ex-1] Unless, Procurement of new set of Hardware (Predecessor) Starts, we cannot start inspection of Procured hardware sets (successor)
[Ex-2] Level Concrete (Successor) cannot start until pour foundation (predecessors) starts

Application of Leads and Lags:


Mandatory Dependencies [ Legally or contracutally required]: Hard Logic/depedenecies
Example-1: It is impossible to erect a super structure before foundation has been built

Example-2: On Electronics Project, a Prototype has to be built before it can be tested

Optional Dependencies [Based on knowledge on Best Practices] Soft Logic- where a specific sequence is desired - Project team determines optional dependencies - These should be reviewed and fully documented carefully since these can create total float values and thus can limit our scheduling options.

External Dependencies: Where coordiantion with outside project teams is required - Example: Delivery of hardware from an external source, Governament environmental standards etc.

Internal Dependencies: Inside the Project team's control - Example - Team cannot test a machine before they assemble it

I. Output of this step:

Project Schedule Network Diagrams: Activities are represented on Nodes - Each node has a start and a finish. - There can be only 4 ways of showing dependencies between any two activities (Finish to Finish, Finish to Start , Start to Finish and  Start to Start) - This is done using arrows

Project Document Updates:

II. Tools and Techniques used:

Precedence diagramming method PDM

Dependency determination

Leads and Lags

III. Inputs:

Schedule Management Plan

Activity list

Activity Attributes

Milestone list

Project Scope Statement

Enterprise Environmental Factors

Organizational Process Assets

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